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Materials Science and Engineering involves the study of materials such as metals, polymers, ceramics and other materials which has integrated human life since the beginning of the universe. From simple pin to axe and hammer to airplanes and spaceships to computer chips to large manufacturing equipment everything involves materials science and engineering only. The more the discoveries are made in materials science, the more the demand rises. As such Materials Science Engineering is braced up for the new challenges ahead that the human wants throw up in the ring. How material science and its engineering wings are going to meet such demands of human life has been the hot topic of the day in this Conference on Material Science and Engineering.
The properties of materials must satisfy the function and the operating conditions of the components or the structures being designed. The functional requirements of a product are directly determined by the mechanical, physical, chemical properties. The various types of properties of metals directly influence the choice of materials. The various types of materials properties are Mechanical Properties which has stiffness, strength, ductility, hardness, toughness, etc; Physical Properties which has density, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, etc; Chemical Properties which has corrosion resistance in various environments; and Manufacturing Properties which has formability, and ease of joining, etc. However, the skills lie in selecting the right kind of property of materials depending on the product to be manufactured. This session discusses more about properties of materials and materials science.
Advanced ceramic and composite materials are applied to many industries, including automotive, renewable or alternative energy, healthcare, electronics, and aerospace. Composites are made from two or more materials with different mechanical properties that produce a desired set of properties when combined. Ceramics typically include a combination of ionic and covalent bonds to form a material with high modulus and hardness, high melting point, high thermal expansion and corrosion resistance. Because these materials may be brittle, fracture toughness is also an important mechanical property. The microstructure of ceramic material can be characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A backscattered electron detector (BSD) identifies material differences with heavier elements brighter in the SEM image compared to lighter elements. This session discusses more about ceramics and composites of material sciences.
Semiconductors have a smaller forbidden gap than insulators and therefore need less energy for their electrons to jump into the conduction band. Some electrons reach the conduction band on their own as a result of their thermal kinetic energy and even more make it when an electric field is applied to the material. The simplest semiconductor device is the diode. It is a device that allows electric current to pass more easily in one direction than in the other. A diode consists of joined regions of p-type and n-type semiconductors. Instead of two separated pieces of doped silicon being joined, a single sample of intrinsic silicon is treated first with a p-dopant, then with an n-dopant. Metal contacts are coated on each region so that wires can be attached. This session discusses more about semi conducting materials and circuits.
Special materials properties are considered for aircrafts and engine manufacturing. The specialist property may be the most important consideration in materials selection. For instance, resistance against cracking and spalling owing to rapid heating - known as thermal shock resistance - is an essential component for materials used in the exhaust casing of rocket engines. Several specialist materials properties are needed for manufacturing aircrafts and engines. Such as electrical conductivity should have the ability to conduct an electrical charge in the event of lightning strike, thermal conductivity good for high-temperature applications, thermal expansion, flammability properties include ignition, temperature, flame spread rate and smoke, stealth capable to absorb radar waves and/or reduce infrared visibility etc. This session discusses more about Aircrafts and Engine Manufacturing and the kinds of materials to be used.
Graphene is quickly finding its way into a variety of applications and there are many advantages to it. Graphene is an allotrope of carbon that exists as a two-dimensional planar sheet. It is a single atomic graphite layer. It is technically a non-metal but is often referred to as a quasi-metal due to its properties being like that of a semi-conducting metal. As such, it has many unique properties that you don’t find with other non-metallic materials. Each carbon atom is covalently bonded sp2 hybridized to three other carbon atoms in a hexagonal array, leaving one free electron per each carbon atom. This free electron exists in a p-orbital that sits above the plane of the material. Each hexagon in the graphene sheet exhibits two pi-electrons, which are delocalized, allowing for an efficient conduction of electricity. This session discusses more about grapheme properties of metals.
The term "nano" just make the 'world of materials' highly fascinating when the size of materials starts to reach below 100 nm. Due to size constraints, one needs to employ specialized techniques to characterize the structure and properties of nanomaterials requiring use of sophisticated characterization tools such as high resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy, nano-indentation and nano-manipulation. The manifestations of nano-effect can be as diverse as observation of quantum fluorescence in CdSe depicted by a change in the colour from red to violet as the particle size decreases; or strengthening of a hitherto brittle ceramic matrix by reinforcement with carbon nanotubes; or interface engineering to achieve enhanced strength in materials such as metallic glasses. This session discusses more about nanomaterials and nanotechnology.
All materials types which include inorganic, organic, hybrid and nanomaterials, soft matter and interfaces with specific functions are all functional materials. Adaptive materials which are used in technologies such as sensors, actuators, memories and energy harvesters; these materials show a large response to small stimuli. Modeling and advanced characterization enables us to optimize their performance and enhance their capabilities. Electronic materials such as semiconductors, dielectrics, ferroelectrics, half metals and superconductors too form part of functional materials. Magnetic materials are used for storage of data, used in body scanners as well as a range of applications where they are attached to or implanted into the body. The need for efficient generation and use of electricity is dependent on improved magnetic materials and designs. There are several such functional materials which this session discusses more about them and their use and applications.
Optical Materials deals with the studies on design, synthesis, characterization and applications of materials, suitable for various optical devices. The study also involves about physical and chemical properties of such materials and their applications. The purpose of optical materials is to provide a means of communication and technology transfer between researchers who are interested in materials for potential device applications. Optical materials focuses on optical properties of material systems; the materials aspects of optical phenomena; the materials aspects of devices and applications. This session discusses more about the latest technologies and developments in optical materials, their uses and applications in human life.
The design and development of biomaterials play a significant role in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. When used with selective and sensitive biomaterials cutting-edge biodevices allow accurate diagnosis of disease, creating a platform for research and development; especially in the field of treatment for prognosis and detection of diseases at early stage. This book emphasizes the emerging area of biomaterials and biodevices that incorporate therapeutic agents, molecular targeting, and diagnostic imaging capabilities. The use of plastic deformation technique is used to enhance the properties of nanostructured metals. The evaluation of different types of biosensors in terms of their cost effectiveness, selectivity, and sensitivity; and stimuli-responsive polypeptide nanocarriers for malignancy therapeutics are all form part of advanced bio-materials and bio-devices, of which this session discusses more about.
Polymer science or macromolecular science is a subfield of materials science concerned with polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers. The field of polymer science includes researchers in multiple disciplines including chemistry, physics, and engineering. The polymer science research impacts the areas that are critical to ensuring a high quality of life and that contribute to economic progress in areas which include energy security, access to clean water, protection of the environment, and affordable healthcare. How far this polymer science and polymer materials are going to sustain the environment and its impact on global health are going to be discussed in this session.
Materials Science is a field of study focused on creating new technological developments based on cutting-edge scientific advances. It is an inter-disciplinary subject that investigates the structure and design of any material and how it can be optimally utilized. The field also focuses on creation of new materials on the basis of engineering requirements and its production process. The materials created in this field range from nanotechnology to advanced polymers, created for a variety of purposes. This is a broad field of study, and there are many opportunities to contribute using these exciting new technologies. The emerging areas of material science include ceramics, metals, alloys, construction materials, glass, and several other high technology processing areas. This session discusses more about emerging areas in material science.
Carbon-Based Materials deals with the studies on both fundamental and applied research about carbon-based materials. Carbon-Based Materials requires high-quality multidisciplinary research related to all aspects of carbon materials including synthesis, processing, fabrication of devices, and understanding of properties and study of applications, high quality research also required in the related fields of related subject areas of classic carbon materials, new carbon forms and their application in composites. Classic carbon materials such as activated carbons, graphite, carbon black, and new carbon forms, such as low-dimensional carbons like fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphenes, diamond-like carbons, represent carbon based materials. This session discusses more about carbon based materials.
The construction and engineering materials area involves the study of a comprehensive understanding of the composition, microstructure, and engineering behavior of materials used in civil engineering. The studies in constructional and engineering materials are to make the structural, transportation and foundation engineers aware of the fundamental properties of the materials they use. The research interests of the Constructional and Engineering Materials include composition and performance of cementitious materials; nanostructure ofcementitious materials; shrinkage, creep and thermal change of concrete; non-destructive testing, construction materials and structures; its durability and sustainability etc. This session discusses more about constructional and engineering materials.
With its discussion of strategies for modeling complex materials using new numerical techniques, mainly those based on the finite element method, this monograph covers a range of topics including computational plasticity, multi-scale formulations, optimization and parameter identification, damage mechanics and nonlinear finite elements. The research activities include the development of constitutive models and numerical algorithms aimed at large strain inelasticity. The study also involves finite element technology, finite strain plasticity and damage mechanics, multi-scale methods in non-linear solid mechanics etc. The research also aims to improve the understanding of tools designing, processing, and lifing materials through simulation-based modeling of the microstructural defects. This session discusses more about advanced computational materials.
Choosing eco-friendly building materials is often the first step to creating a green property. Green building is about more than the materials you use but it does matter which products you choose. One should use elements and provide green building alternatives to traditional materials. Eco-friendly products are products that do not harm the environment whether in their production, use or disposal. In other words, these products help preserve the environment by significantly reducing the pollution they could produce. Eco-friendly products can be made from scratch, or from recycled materials. Such products are known as environment friendly products or green products as they cause minimal harm to people and the environment.
Metals and Metallurgy is a multidisciplinary field that consolidates with a wide-range of coverage, consolidates research activities in all experimental and theoretical aspects of metallic materials, intermetallic compounds, alloys, blends, composites, their manufacturing, processing, fabrication, chemical, physical, electrical, thermal, mechanical properties, electro-plating, coating, macro/micro/nanostructures, spectroscopy, characterization, crystallography, mining, metallurgical extraction and engineering, consumer production, industrial applications, etc. The research should encompass the fundamental and applied research in metals and metallurgy comprising all disciplines of chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering. This session discusses several issues about metals and metallurgy, the latest developments in its research and the application of nanotechnology.
Biosensors and Bioelectrical Materials have seen the recent advancements in the fields that are able to efficiently transduce biological events using rapid, label-free electronic devices. This progress in the research field has led to the improvement of biological sensing platforms demonstrating the potential to be applied for the rapid screening of biological samples and point-of care applications. Particularly, the tailoring of new biosensors and bioelectrical materials engineering allows to create new enzymes and protein receptors, and to engineer monoclonal antibodies, aptamers or nucleic acids for non-biological substrates thus helping their integration in electronic devices. These electronic devices are mainly based on carbon nanotubes, nanowires, graphene sheets; field effect transistors, piezoelectric crystals, scanning tunneling microscopy tips and others. This session discusses more about biosensors and bioelectrical materials.
Nanotechnology is the science of engineering and technology that converts materials at nanoscale. It is at the epicentre of many technological developments that is raising the living standards of human life qualitatively. Nanotechnology and material science has together brought major developmental changes in the fields of information technology, transportation, security systems and applications, renewable energy, green technology, biomaterials, silicon and several other fields. The application of nanotechnology in materials science has come to integrate our lives with every material being miniaturized from stents to pacemakers to micro chipsets to sensitive parts in spaceships and airplanes. This session discusses more about nanotechnology in material sciences.
Corrosion is a huge issue for materials, mechanical, civil and petrochemical engineers. The study involves basic corrosion principles, and more advanced information for postgraduate students and professionals. Basic principles of electrochemistry and chemical thermodynamics also covered in its research study. Each form of corrosion should be defined, described, mechanisms, and preventative methods. The principles of corrosion engineering and methods of corrosion protection and corrosion processes and control in selected engineering environments need to be evolved. The Corrosion Engineering covers the processes of corrosion from a scientific and engineering aspect along with the prevention of corrosion in industrial applications. Structured for corrosion science and engineering this session discusses more about corrosion engineering and corrosion protection.
Nanophotonics or nano-optics is the study of the behavior of light on the nanometer scale and of the interaction of nanometer-scale objects with light. It is a branch of optics, optical engineering, electrical engineering, and nanotechnology. It often involves metallic components which can transport and focus light via surface plasmon polaritons. Nanophotonics refers to the use of light in nanoscale projects. This field is associated with some specific breakthroughs in using light in new technologies, including silicon-based semiconductors, where nanophotonics improve speed and performance. The term nano-optics usually refers to situations involving ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light such as free-space wavelengths from 300 to 1200 nanometers. Nanophotonics researchers pursue a very wide variety of goals, in fields ranging from biochemistry to electrical engineering. This session discusses more about the latest developments in nanophotonics and optics.
Nanofluidics is the study of the behavior, manipulation, and control of fluids that are confined to structures of nanometer (typically 1–100 nm) characteristic dimensions (1 nm = 10−9 m). Fluids confined in these structures exhibit physical behaviors such as those of micrometer dimensions and above, because the characteristic physical scaling lengths of the fluid such as Debye length, hydrodynamic radius closely coincide with the dimensions of the nanostructure itself. When structures approach the size regime corresponding to molecular scaling lengths, new physical constraints are placed on the behavior of the fluid. These physical constraints induce regions of the fluid to exhibit new properties that may affect changes in thermodynamic properties. This session discusses more about nanofluidics.
Advanced Nanotechnologies involves the study of high quality materials and surface applications relating to various industrial segments, which satisfy the business communities across all industry platforms, consumers, and business markets. Advanced nanotechnology should be taken up in various research and development projects by developing specific processes and equipment for a range of applications. We offer specific innovative, solutions based on nanotechnology to boost the development of our customer’s projects. Advanced nanotechnology raises many of the issues including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. This session discusses more about advanced nanotechnologies.
Applications of Nanotechnology finds itself in a number of products and utilities such as socks and trousers to last longer, optical equipments, bandages to heal the cuts faster, video game consoles and personal computers, chipsets, chip computing with light, chip optical quantum information processing, and picosecond transmission of information. Further, nanotechnology has the ability to make existing medical applications cheaper and easier to use in places like the general practitioner's office and at home. Cars are being manufactured with nanomaterials so they may need fewer metals and less fuel to operate in the future. This session discusses more about applications of nanotechnology in every product or material that common man uses in his day-to-day life.
Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometer which is 10-9 metres. More specifically nanorobotics refers to the still largely theoretical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots. Nanorobots also known as nanobots or nanoids are typically devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometres and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components. As of today, as no artificial non-biological nanorobots have been created nanorobotics hypothetically remain a distant far cry. Even large apparatus such as atomic force microscope can also be considered a nanorobotic instrument when configured to perform nanomanipulation. Also, macroscale robots or microrobots which move with nanoscale precision are also considered as nanorobots.